Food additives

^
Top
^
Bottom
Site map
Update
19 Jan 2019
To François´ homepage
Home
First the list of about 330 ingredients authorised in Europe. See my comments at the bottom. The missing numbers, e.g. E103, E105 etc. are not authorised.
 
Green bead Natural (vegetal/animal) — Blue bead Natural (inorganic) — Purple bead Natural modified — Red bead Synthetic

Dyestuffs (food colouring)
E100 Curcumin
E101 (i) Riboflavin (ii) Riboflavin-5'-phosphate
E102 Tartrazine
E104 Quinoline Yellow
E110 Sunset Yellow FCF, Orange Yellow S
E120 Cochineal, Carminic acid, Carmines[1]
E122 Azorubine, Carmoisine
E123 Amaranth
E124 Ponceau 4R, Cochineal Red A
E127 Erythrosine
E129 Allura Red AC
E131 Patent Blue V
E132 Indigotine, Indigo carmine
E133 Brilliant Blue FCF
E140 Chlorophylis and Chlorophyllins: (i) Chlorophylls (ii) Chlorophyllins
E141 Copper complexes of chlorophylls and chlorophyllins
E142 Greens S
E150a Plain caramel[2]
E150b Caustic sulphite caramel
E150c Ammonia caramel
E150d Sulphite ammonia caramel
E151 Brilliant Black BN, Black PN
E153 Vegetable carbon
E155 Brown HT
E160a Carotenes: (i) Mixed carotenes (ii) Beta-carotene
E160b Annatto, bixin, norbixin
E160c Paprika extract, capsanthin, capsorubin
E160d Lycopene
E160e Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30)
E161b Lutein
E161g Canthaxanthin[3]
E162 Beetroot Red, betanin
E163 Anthocyanins
E170 Calcium carbonates
E171 Titanium dioxide
E172 Iron oxides and hydroxides
E173 Aluminium
E174 Silver
E175 Gold
E180 Litholrubine BK
Preservatives
E200 Sorbic acid
E202 Potassium sorbate
E203 Calcium sorbate
E210 Benzoic acid[4]
E211 Sodium benzoate[4]
E212 Potassium benzoate[4]
E213 Calcium benzoate[4]
E214 Ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E215 Sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E216 Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E218 Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E219 Sodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E218 Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate
E220 Sulphur dioxide
E221 Sodium sulphite
E222 Sodium hydrogen sulphite
E223 Sodium metabisulphite
E224 Potassium metabisulphite
E226 Calcium sulphite
E227 Calcium hydrogen sulphite
E228 Potassium hydrogen sulphite
E230 Biphenyl, diphenyl
E231 Orthophenyl phenol
E232 Sodium orthophenyl phenol
E234 Nisin
E235 Natamycin
E239 Hexamethylene tetramine
E242 Dimethyl dicarbonate
E243 Ethyl lauroyl arginate [Added by commission regulation (EU) 15 May 2014]? ?
E249 Potassium nitrite
E250 Sodium nitrite
E251 Sodium nitrate
E252 Potassium nitrate (salpeter)
E260 Acetic acid
E261 Potassium acetate
E262 Sodium acetates (i) Sodium ac. (ii) Sodium hydrogen ac. (sodium diacetate)
E263 Calcium acetate
E270 Lactic acid
E280 Propionic acid
E281 Sodium propionate
E282 Calcium propionate
E283 Potassium propionate
E284 Boric acid
E285 Sodium tetraborate (borax)
E290 Carbon dioxide
E296 Malic acid
E297 Fumaric acid
Antioxidants
E300 Ascorbic acid
E301 Sodium ascorbate
E302 Calcium ascorbate
E304 Fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid (i) Ascorbyl palmitate (ii) Ascorbyl stearate
E306 Tocopherol-rich extract
E307 Alpha-tocopherol
E308 Gamma-tocopherol
E309 Delta-tocopherol
E310 Propyl gallate
E311 Octyl gallate
E312 Dodecyl gallate
E315 Erythorbic acid
E316 Sodium erythorbate
E319 Tertiary-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ)
E320 Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
E321 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)
E322 Lecithins
E325 Sodium lactate
E326 Potassium lactate
E327 Calcium lactate
E330 Citric acid
E331 Sodium citrates (i) Monosodium citr. (ii) Disodium citr. (iii) Trisodium citr.
E332 Potassium citrates (i) Monopotassium citr. (ii) Tripotassium citr.
E333 Calcium citrates (i) Monocalcium citr. (ii) Dicalcium citr. (iii) Tricalcium citr.
E334 Tartaric acid (L(+)-)
E335 Sodium tartrates (i) Monosodium tar. (ii) Disodium tar.
E336 Potassium tartrates (i) Monopotassium tar. (ii) Dipotassium tar.
E337 Sodium potassium tartrate
E338 Phosphoric acid
E339 Sodium phosphates (i) Monosodium ph. (ii) Disodium ph. (iii) Trisodium ph.
E340 Potassium phosphates (i) Monopotassium ph. (ii) Dipotassium ph. (iii) Tripotassium ph.
E341 Calcium phosphates (i) Monocalcium ph. (ii) Dicalcium ph. (iii) Tricalcium ph.
E343 Magnesium phosphates (i) monomagnesium ph. (ii) Dimagnesium ph.
E350 Sodium malates (i) Sodium malate (ii) Sodium hydrogen malate
E351 Potassium malate
E352 Calcium malates (i) Calcium malate (ii) Calcium hydrogen malate
E353 Metatartaric acid
E354 Calcium tartrate
E355 Adipic acid
E356 Sodium adipate
E357 Potassium adipate
E363 Succinic acid
E380 Triammonium citrate
E385 Calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetate (Calcium disodium EDTA)
E392 Extracts of rosemary
Thickeners, emulsifiers, stabilisers
E400 Alginic acid
E401 Sodium alginate
E402 Potassium alginate
E403 Ammonium alginate
E404 Calcium alginate
E405 Propan-1,2-diol alginate
E406 Agar
E407 Carrageenan
E407a Processed eucheuma seaweed
E410 Locust bean gum
E412 Guar gum
E413 Tragacanth
E414 Acacia gum (gum arabic)
E415 Xanthan gum
E416 Karaya gum
E417 Tara gum
E418 Gellan gum
E420 Sorbitol (i) Sorbitol (ii) Sorbitol syrup
E421 Mannitol
E422 Glycerol
E423 Octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic [Added by commission regulation 28 Aug 2013]
E425 Konjac (i) Konjac gum (ii) Konjac glucomannane
E426 Soybean hemicellulose
E431 Polyoxyethylene (40) stearate
E432 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (polysorbate 20)
E433 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (polysorbate 80)
E434 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monopalmitate (polysorbate 40)
E435 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (polysorbate 60)
E436 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan tristearate (polysorbate 65)
E440 Pectins (i) pectin (ii) amidated pectin
E442 Ammonium phosphatides
E444 Sucrose acetate isobutyrate
E445 Glycerol esters of wood rosins
E450 Diphosphates (i) Disodium diph. (ii) Trisodium diph. (iii) Tetrasodium diph. (iv) Dipotassium diph. (v) Tetrapotassium diph. (vi) Dicalcium diph. (vii) Calcium dihydrogen diph.
E451 Triphosphates (i) Pentasodium triph. (ii) Pentapotassium triph.
E452 Polyphosphates (i) Sodium polyph. (ii) Potassium polyph. (iii) Sodium calcium polyph. (iv) Calcium polyph.
E459 Beta-cyclodextrine
E460 Cellulose (i) Microcrystalline cellulose (ii) Powdered cellulose
E461 Methyl cellulose
E462 Ethyl cellulose
E463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose
E464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose
E465 Ethyl methyl cellulose
E466 Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, cellulose gum
E468 Crosslinked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
E469 Enzymically hydrolysed carboxy methyl cellulose
E470a Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids
E470b Magnesium salts of fatty acids
E471 Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472a Acetic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472b Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472c Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472d Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472e Mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E472f Mixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids
E474 Sucroglycerides
E475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
E476 Polyglycerol polyricinoleate
E477 Propane-1,2-diol esters of fatty acids
E479b Thermally oxidized soya bean oil interacted with mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids
E481 Sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate
E482 Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate
E483 Stearyl tartrate
E491 Sorbitan monostearate
E492 Sorbitan tristearate
E493 Sorbitan monolaurate
E494 Sorbitan monooleate
E495 Sorbitan monopalmitate
E499 Stigmasterol-rich plant sterols [Added bu commission reculation 30 Jul 2013]
Alkalis, salts, acids
E500 Sodium carbonates (i) Sodium c. (ii) Sodium hydrogen c. (iii) Sodium sesquica.
E501 Potassium carbonates (i) Potassium c. (ii) Potassium hydrogen c.
E503 Ammonium carbonates (i) Ammonium c. (ii) Ammonium hydrogen c.
E504 Magnesium carbonates (i) Magnesium c. (ii) Magnesium hydrogen c.)
E507 Hydrochloric acid
E508 Potassium chloride
E509 Calcium chloride
E511 Magnesium chloride
E512 Stannous chloride
E513 Sulphuric acid
E514 Sodium sulphates (i) Sodium sulphate (ii) Sodium hydrogen sulphate
E515 Potassium sulphates (i) Potassium sulphate (ii) Potassium hydrogen sulphate
E516 Calcium sulphate
E517 Ammonium sulphate
E520 Aluminium sulphate
E521 Aluminium sodium sulphate
E522 Aluminium potassium sulphate
E523 Aluminium ammonium sulphate
E524 Sodium hydroxide
E525 Potassium hydroxide
E526 Calcium hydroxide
E527 Ammonium hydroxide
E528 Magnesium hydroxide
E529 Calcium oxide
E530 Magnesium oxide
E535 Sodium ferrocyanide
E536 Potassium ferrocyanide
E538 Calcium ferrocyanide
E541 Sodium aluminium phosphate, acidic
E551 Silicon dioxide
E552 Calcium silicate
E553a (i) Magnesium silicate (ii) Magnesium trisilicate
E553b Talc
E554 Sodium aluminium silicate
E555 Potassium aluminium silicate
E570 Fatty acids
E574 Gluconic acid
E575 Glucono-delta-lactone
E576 Sodium gluconate
E577 Potassium gluconate
E578 Calcium gluconate
E579 Ferrous gluconate
E585 Ferrous lactate
E586 4-hexylresorcinol
Taste and flavour enhancers
E620 Glutamic acid
E621 Monosodium glutamate
E622 Monopotassium glutamate
E623 Calcium diglutamate
E624 Monoammonium glutamate
E625 Magnesium diglutamate
E626 Guanylic acid
E627 Disodium guanylate
E628 Dipotassium guanylate
E629 Calcium guanylate
E630 Inosinic acid
E631 Disodium inosinate
E632 Dipotassium inosinate
E633 Calcium inosinate
E634 Calcium 5'-ribonucleotides
E635 Disodium 5'-ribonucleotides
E640 Glycine and its sodium salt
E650 Zinc acetate
Glazing agents
E900 Dimethyl polysiloxane
E901 Beeswax, white and yellow
E902 Candelillla wax
E903 Carnauba wax
E904 Shellac
E905 Microcrystalline wax
E907 Hydrogenated poly-1-decene
E914 Oxidized polyethylene wax
E920 L-Cysteine
E927b Carbamide
Gases
E938 Argon
E939 Helium
E941 Nitrogen
E942 Nitrous oxide
E943a Butane
E943b Isobutane
E944 Propane
E948 Oxygen
E949 Hydrogen
Sweeteners
E950 Acesulfame K
E951 Aspartame
E952 Cyclamic acid and its Na and Ca salts
E953 Isomalt
E954 Saccharin and its Na, K and Ca salts
E955 Sucralose
E957 Thaumatin
E959 NeohesperidineDC
E960 Steviol glycosides [Added by commission regulation 11 Nov 2011]
E962 Salt of aspartame - acesulfame
E964 Polyglycitol syrup [Added by commission regulation 8 Nov 2012]
E965 Maltitol (i) Maltitol (ii) Maltitol syrup
E966 Lactitol
E967 Xylitol
E968 Erythritol
E969 Advantame [Added by commission regulation 14 May 2014]
E999 Quilllaia extract
Miscellaneous
E1103 Invertase
E1105 Lysozyme
E1200 Polydextrose
E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone
E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone
E1203 Polyvinylalcohol (PVA)
E1204 Pullulan
E1205 Basic methacrylate polymer
E1206 Neutral methacrylate polymer [Added by commission regulation 28 Aug 2013]
E1207 Anionic methacrylate polymer [Added by commission regulation 28 Aug 2013]
E1208 Polyvinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer [Added by commission regulation 14 Mar 2014]
E1209 Polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol-graft-copolymer [Added by commission regulation 20 Jun 2014]
E1404 Oxidized starch
E1410 Monostarch phosphate
E1412 Distarch phosphate
E1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate
E1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate
E1420 Acetylated starch
E1422 Acetylated distarch adipate
E1440 Hydroxy propyl starch
E1442 Hydroxy propyl distarch phosphate
E1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate
E1451 Acetylated oxidised starch
E1452 Starch aluminium octenyl succinate
E1505 Triethyl citrate
E1517 Glyceryl diacetate (diacetin)
E1518 Glyceryl triacetate (triacetin)
E1519 Benzyl alcohol
E1520 Propan-1,2-diol (propylene glycol)
E1521 Polyethylene glycol

From The School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, UK
http://www.foodlaw.reading.ac.uk/additive-list.htm
The origin of the substance (coloured beads) was obtained from various sources.
 

Footnotes (official)

[1] E120: Cochineal is an insect living in Latin America from which the natural dye carmine is extracted after drying, primarily used as a red colorant in food and in lipstick.

[2] E150a: The term caramel relates to products of a more or less intense brown colour which are intended for colouring. It does not correspond to the sugary aromatic product obtained from heating sugars and which is used for flavouring food (e.g. confectionery, pastry, alcoholic drinks).

[2] E161g: Canthaxanthin is not authorised in the food categories listed in Part D and E. The substance is in list B1 because it is used in medicinal products in accordance with Directive 2009/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 109, 30.4.2009, p. 10).

[4] E210-213: Benzoic acid may be present in certain fermented products resulting from the fermentation process following good manufacturing practice.

Comments (mine)

I am a chemist, though not a nutritionist or dietetician. I know most of the molecules in the list, although I am really familiar with only a few of the substances above, but let me tell you that in general, I would prefer to avoid them in my food. This list does not show some restrictions of use of the ingredients. See for instance a definition of the European Commission.

Some of the substances in my list are not authorised in individual European countries, whilst some not in my list are.

Natural ( or ) does not mean that the substance is harmless! It only indicates it is extracted from plants, animals or minerals.

Examples, harmless

Examples that I would avoid

Of course, no one will remember all these E numbers, so when you look at the label on your Mars chocolate bar or on my adjacent Smarties, you won't know what's in the bag. My recommendation is still: look at the label, and avoid any processed food that has a composition like a chemist's prescription... Try to eat plain food, cook it yourself or eat it raw. Of course, you must be careful about its cleanliness and conditions of preservation.

See also in my "Reactions" page Open Food Facts: the ingredients and additives of all the industrial food products!

Voir en français Le guide des additifs alimentaires et Additifs alimentaires) (liens externes).

Site map
Site map
To François´ homepage
Home

Write

joomla stats